1869 – 1895

From a merchant family

Part of: Helene Kröller-Müller

Helene is raised in Germany. Her father is the founder of Wm H. Müller & Co, a trading company in iron and steel. At the age of 14, she reads the major works of enlightened writers and philosophers, including Spinoza, who would later inspire her to formulate her life motto: Spiritus et materia unum.

Family business

Familie Müller, c. 1880

Helene, Gustav, Martha, Wilhelm, Emmy en Emilie Müller, c. 1880

Spinoza

Helene at the boarding school for girls in Brussel, 1886 / Books of Spinoza, Dante, Goethe en Schiller, from Helene's library

Marriage with Anton Kröller

Helene en Anton at the time of their engagement, 1887-1888

Helene en Anton at the time of their engagement, 1887-1888

The Batavier Line